Respublica     Repertório Português de Ciência Política         Edição electrónica 2004

Respublica     Repertório Português de Ciência Política         Edição electrónica 2004

Democracia O governo de todos, por oposição ao governo de um só e ao governo de alguns. A expressão surge bastante tarde no vocabulério grego, substituindo a anterior ideia de isonomia, conforme a defesa por ela feita de Heródoto. Já em 468 a..C. a expressão é utilizada por Ésquilo, juntando demos e kratos. Mas é só em finais do século V que, com Tucídedes, ela entra na linguagem comum. Salienta-se que já antes em 508 a.C., com Clístenes, se institui a boulé dos quinhentos. As posteriores guerras reforçam o poder do demos que vai retirando funções ao conselho aristocrático do Areópago. Segundo o sofista Protágoras, em Atenas, todos os homens tinham capacidade para fazerem um juízo político (politikè techné). Mas é com o discurso de Péricles, uma oração fúnebre, que a democracia se configura, assente nos princípios da igualdade e da maioria. A democracia ateniense passa a ser mais directa do que representativa, dominando a metodologia do uso da palavra, dada a importância do debate oral para a formação das decisões e um efectivo diálogo directo entre os governantes e os governados.

Actualmente não é o governo directo do povo, mas o governo de todos através de representantes eleitos por todos, assentando nos mecanismos da igualdade de direito, da liberdade de expressão, do fair trial. Em termos sintéticos, o governo do povo, para o povo e pelo povo, de acordo com a regra da maioria, mas tolerando a oposição das minorias. Exige a participação política da massa popular nas decisões. Impõe a regra da maioria, mas com controlo do poder, impedindo o esmagamento das minorias. Assenta na liberdade de expressão de pensamento e de associação. Tem como fundamentalismo a autonomia e a dignidade da pessoa humana, bem como a noção de indivíduo e tende a consagrar como meta justicialista a igualdade de oportunidades. No último quartel do século XX passou a identificar-se com os modelos pluralistas do chamado Estado de Direito, num entendimento global que entende o direito como fundamento do poder e como forma de limitação ao mesmo poder, através de um processo de institucionalização do poder, onde o homem, em vez de obedecer a outro homem, nomeadamente ao governante,  tende a ser educado para obedecer a uma abstracção que também vincula o detentor do poder que, deste modo, apenas exerce uma função e um poder-dever.

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